In the fictional Star Wars universe, the Rebel Alliance, or more formally, the Alliance to Restore the Republic, was an interstellar political resistance force formed in direct military opposition to the Galactic Empire. The Alliance was started by a group of Loyalists, who wished to preserve the ideals of the Republic. The primary founders were Senator Mon Mothma, Senator Bail Organa, and Senator Garm Bel Iblis.
It is not yet known exactly when the Alliance formed, but we do know it was established almost immediately after the Clone Wars during the onset of the upcoming Galactic Civil War, where Chancellor Palpatine transformed the Galactic Republic into the Empire with himself as the Emperor. In Revenge of the Sith, the first resistance to Imperial rule laid the foundations of the Rebel Alliance. According to the role-playing game, however, the Cantham House Meetings on Coruscant to discuss the future of the Republic were still ongoing; resistance was relatively quiet until a military ship commanded by Tarkin was blocked by peaceful protesters who stood on the ship's landing pad and refused to move. With implied permission from the Emperor, Tarkin landed the ship anyway, right on the protestors, injuring and killing many - an incident that history recorded as the Ghorman Massacre.
Senators Mon Mothma, Bail Organa, and Garm Bel Iblis finally realized the Empire had absolutely no regard to the rights, or even the lives, of its citizens and that normal political channels were useless to address the problem. With their help, an underground rag-tag organization, the Resistance, was formed to plan the removal of the Emperor, but the growing ruthlessness of the State forced them into initial secrecy as they were unable to undermine the Empire's regime.
In a few deleted scenes from Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, Senator Padmé Amidala Skywalker was briefly involved with Bail Organa and Mon Mothma in the formation of the Alliance before her premature death after delivering her twin children, Luke Skywalker and Leia Organa, both of whom would later become members of the Alliance.
When the Rebels were ready to fight and had formed an official organization with countless allied systems, it became clear that the cause needed a public statement to ensure its legitimacy. Mon Mothma supplied an open Declaration of Rebellion in which the grievances of the Rebel Alliance were stated and concluded with an open threat to depose the Emperor, while the Corellian Treaty was signed at the Corellian System Meetings. With these acts, the Empire went to work to crush the insurrection, while various allies secretly made their contributions to the Alliance, slowly making the united Rebel Force even more powerful.
The most notable equipment contributions include the defection of the Incom Corporation staff and all relevant material involved in the development of an advanced spacefighter, the X-wing. Later the fish-like species called the Mon Calamari joined the rebellion and used their renowned skill in ship construction to supply badly needed capital ships that could take on the Imperial Navy.
According to the RPG, part of the Alliance's strategy was "the Doctrine of Space Denial" in which the Alliance would attack Imperial shipping in hit and run raids both to disrupt Imperial supplies and operations and to confiscate desperately needed materials. Consequently, their starfighters had hyperdrive capability along prearranged routes which would allow this kind of harassment and escape before the Empire could react.
Through their intelligence network, the Alliance learned of the construction of the Death Star, an enormous terror weapon intended to secure the Empire's power. Operation Skyhook, a military operation commanded by Princess Leia and involving Keyan Farlander and Kyle Katarn, was successful in stealing the schematics of the station, but her ship was crippled and captured by the Imperial fleet while attempting to deliver them. Leia was held hostage for a time by the Emperor's second in command, Darth Vader. She was rescued by Luke Skywalker, and Han Solo, and Obi Wan Kenobi and was able to deliver the station schematics to the Alliance. This led directly to the Alliance's victory in the Battle of Yavin, and also gained them Luke, their only loyal member with training in The Force and the skills of the purged Jedi Knights.
The Alliance suffered a setback on Hoth when one of their main bases, Echo Base, was overrun by Darth Vader's forces, but eventually managed to mass a fleet to destroy the second Death Star in the Battle of Endor, where both the Emperor and Vader were killed.
About six months after the death of the Emperor at Endor, Mon Mothma declared the Rebellion (which became the Alliance of Free Planets) to be at an end, and she declared the New Republic to be established as the successor state. Mon Mothma was initially the President of the Senate in conjunction with the restored Senate. This government partly collapsed during the Yuuzhan Vong invasion of the galaxy, but it was re-organized into the Galactic Alliance, taking a more formal, governmential role.
Senior civil government and military high command
- Mon Mothma - Chief of State, co-founder, and Commander-in-Chief
- Bail Organa -Co-founder
- Garm Bel Iblis - General and co-founder
- Admiral Ackbar - Supreme Commander of the Rebel Alliance Fleet
- Leia Organa - Senior Diplomat
- Han Solo - General and former Smuggler
- Lando Calrissian - General and former Cloud City administrator
- Wedge Antilles - Commander of Rogue Squadron
- Luke Skywalker - Commander and Jedi Knight; former Commander of Rogue Squadron
- Carlist Rieekan - General and Commander of the Alliance's Echo Base on Hoth
- Jan Dodonna - General and Commander of the Alliance base on Yavin 4
Bases of operations
- Home One and Endor
- Echo Base, Hoth
- Yavin 4
- Second Chance Base, Bastion
- Commerce Point Base, Gralle
- List of Rebels
- Revolution -- What the Rebel Alliance did
- Galactic Republic (Star Wars)
- Galactic Empire (Star Wars)
- New Republic (Star Wars)
- Galactic Alliance
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